Metrics details Abstract This paper analyses the development of flood related problems in two parishes in southeastern Sweden—Högsby and Mörlunda—during the period dating sites i högsby The questions asked concern the role of the larger development of the agricultural production in the expansion of flooding problems during the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and also investigates how this relationship was perceived by the local inhabitants.
This is done through an analysis of the development of agriculture dating sites i högsby the area using historical maps, combined with a study of written source material such as parish records and court protocols. The river Emån which flows through these parishes had long been a vital resource in the cattle—based economy of the studied parishes.
This relationship turned more problematic by the turn of the eighteenth century due to the introduction of autumn rye into the agricultural scheme, prolonging the period of flood risk exposure for the arable crops.
Combined with arable field expansion during the eighteenth century, this increased the sensitivity of agriculture to flooding. This development was not apparent in the discourse of the local inhabitants by the end of the eighteenth century, who instead interpreted increasing flooding problems in relation to dating sites i högsby water rights principles. These emphasized the more direct effects of human and natural obstructions in the river channel.
The limits of historical memory as well as the necessities of agricultural development colored the local interpretation. Such processes on a general level were also closely inter—linked with the large—scale institutional changes of the period. Introduction The historical relationship between humans and flooding is a complex one.
Flooding is geomorphologically and biologically a natural part of a watercourse Charlton ; Mathar et al. Tockner et al.
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At the same time, floods have also often caused harmful effects on societies and settlements located along rivers e. Donahue ; Morgan ; Fanta et al.
This essay investigates and problematizes the development of flooding problems in agriculture during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in the parishes dating sites i högsby Högsby and Mörlunda by the river Emån in southeastern Sweden.
At an early stage, the inhabitants of this area used yearly spring floods as a key part of their agricultural production, and while this usage persisted throughout the eighteenth century, the relationship to flooding and the river Emån turned gradually dejt stenkyrka antagonistic. The dating sites i högsby by which this relationship changed is an interesting object of study, as it serves as a historical background on a local level for the large drainage and reclamation projects that were conducted in Emån during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Granlund ; Tärnfors : 30ff; Dedering : ff. Similar projects in Sweden have often been connected to the rise of capitalist agriculture, class conflicts and a clash between tradition and modernity e.
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Olsson ; Lennqvist ; Runefelt ; Mels Regarding the interaction between human society and natural disasters such as flooding however, the social production of disasters as mediated through the intersection of culture, politics, economy and physical processes has been emphasized by international historical research e. Blackbourn ; Mauchpp.
The transformation of the water landscape should thus also be clearly connected to the ways in which water turns problematic within existing economic and social structures—as well as in relation to ongoing societal developments—producing the necessity of reclamation, protection measures and draining. Previous research has shown how such developments can be driven by both external demands—such as industry, transportation and trade—and local necessities such as the ecological limitations of subsistence agriculture Donahue The river Emån was the object of dating sites i högsby similar development, but the local transformation of agriculture seems to have initially played a more substantial role than external demands.
My essay builds on themes recognized by previous research, but is also a suitable case in which local agrarian developments can be put center stage in the analysis. Following from this, two questions are asked: How did large—scale changes in dejting tjärstad affect flood—related problems in the agrarian production within the studied area? Did contemporary inhabitants within the studied area reflect upon the problem of flooding in relation to larger economic and agrarian changes?
The first question relates to the intersection of agriculture with the production of flood—related problems and is studied through maps and written documents mainly from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
In this paper, the second layer human modifications includes the agrarian economical dimension, which is an essential part of any understanding of floodplain and river control during the period.
The parishes of Högsby and Mörlunda were chosen as case studies due to the extensive character of the source material, but also due to their central location in the lower reaches of the river valley of Emån. Högsby and Mörlunda are suitable case studies in this area. I also draw on comparisons with neighboring parishes such as Målilla directly to the north.
The period of study is limited to roughly —, which enables an analysis of the processes and events leading up to discussions of drainage and river control occurring in the late eighteenth century, as well as some parts of the aftermath.
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Research background In Sweden, relatively limited research dating sites i högsby been conducted that examines in—depth the historical relationship between human society and water, as opposed to the vibrant international field of water history Mauch and Zeller ; Schönach The few notable dating sites i högsby include the work by Eva Jakobsson, which covers a broad range of water—related subjects such as the conflicting interests in the development of hydropower Jakobsson umeå stadsförs.
dejta kvinnor, the Swedish history of water rights Jakobsson band the development of ditching activities Jakobsson Another example includes the work of Jörgen Lennqvist on the lowering of the lakes Hjälmaren and Kvismaren in central Sweden, the actors currently and historically involved in its remaking and the environmental consequences of such modifications Lennqvist However, while environmental historians in Sweden have tended to focus on water regulations, modifications and the conflicts involved in water landscapes, few have explored floodplain problems in the agrarian production in particular.
While the general processes underlying the transformation of agriculture in Sweden have been rather extensively sketched e. Wiking-Faria ; Gadd ; Myrdalwater and river use has only played a rather limited role in this research in favour of other forms of land use such as arable farming c. Håkansson A few exceptions exist, such as a body of work on mire reclamation Runefelt ; Strandin Dating sites i högsby e.
Holmbäck ; Ek ; Beronius Jörpeland et al. However, while some studies connect the development of local water use in relation to wider economic developments e. Bylundexisting studies do not investigate the interconnections between agrarian development and human—river relations c.
Morgan Thus, from a broader research perspective, the aim of this paper is mainly to fill a gap in Swedish water history as well as agrarian history, by conducting a combined empirical study in both fields. Although combined water—agrarian historical research has been conducted before e.
Lennqvist ; Jakobsson —not the least internationally e. Donahue ; Fritzbøger ; Morgan —the scope has often been broad in character.
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By conducting a focused empirical analysis on a smaller study area, this paper hopes to contribute to the communication between agrarian and water history. This also plays into larger trends of increasing interdisciplinarity within the international discipline of river history Schönach Both agrarian and water history in Sweden builds on developed methodological traditions, which when combined empirically may contribute to further enrichment of the field.
While this paper largely leaves the call for more international, comparative and theoretical river histories unanswered Evendenmy hope is to show how detailed empirical analysis in that context still remains an essential part of understanding the development of human—river relations on the local scale.
Methodology This paper is thus based on a combination of source materials dating sites i högsby methods. The development of agriculture in the studied area is analysed through historical maps from to and a comparison between selected halmets in the parishes of Högsby and Mörlunda.
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Hamlets were selected dating sites i högsby on the existence of seventeenth century or eighteenth century maps and through their proximity to the river Emån. Maps from these villages were georectified and the land use digitised in GIS, which enabled an analysis of the development of land use over time and a comparison with modern soil geology Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, SGU and flood maps Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap, MSB Dating sites i högsby flood maps are dating sites i högsby on modern hydrological conditions in Emån affected by water control and earlier drainage projects such as the lowering of the lake Ryningen in the early twentieth century Granlund The year and year floods are problematic in a historical context with different hydrological conditions, especially when comparisons with notes on historical maps state that areas only within the year and HCF zone experience sporadical flooding.
Footnote 1 In this paper, the HCF data is thus used to define the maximum floodplain of the river Emån with a greater historical depth, but is also compared and verified through the use of written source material see dating sites i högsby.
Nonetheless, the quantitative parts of the historical land—use analysis below should be viewed with this sollerön dejt mind.
The history of flooding and flood—related problems in the area dating sites i högsby analysed through a combination of different source material. Late eighteenth century court records from the härader Footnote 2 of Handbörd in which Högsby is situatied and neighboring Aspeland with Mörlunda are used to analyse the arguments for increased draining of the river, as well as the local perception of the causes of flood—related problems.
Such notes, found on a regular basis from the late seventeenth centuries and onwards, often describe weather events that affected the inhabitants of the area Ingesson Footnote 3 A few notes from neighboring parishes also exist from the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Inhabitants of the area often connected increasing flood—related problems to the damming of the river through both natural obstacles e.
In this paper, this is done through an analysis of the development of milling activities in the main channel in the parish of Högsby, using a survey of historical maps in combination with primary and published written source material. Footnote 4 The notes in the church archives can also be used to study variations in weather over time, in a more quantitative manner, to see if increased flood—related problems were connected to an actual increase in flood recurrence. For this study, variations in droughts and lidköping single have been studied through these notes in a manner similar to the methodology used by Dag Retsö on a national level Retsö The physical setting As every waterway is to a certain extent unique in its physical characteristics, it is first important to outline the structure of the physical landscape of Emån in accordance with the water system perspective.